Open secrets from Ancient Network

Open secrets from Ancient Network


Vivek Sood




January 8, 2019

Extract from the book “The 5-Star Business Network”, written by Vivek Sood 5star-book

“Plus ça change, plus c’est la même chose”

Alphonse KARR, Les Guêpes 1849

Before we embark on the journey of exploration into the current realms of business networks, let us take a journey into the past.

A logical question always is whether all this is new or has this been done before. After all, as the quotation above says, the more things change the more they remain the same. This is true of the business networks too. In a way, the networks we are talking about in this book are not new at all. Some features, such as speed, trust building mechanisms, outcomes and science of network creation and harnessing are new.

However, similar networks have existed in formally or informally through the ages. And each time, they have been very effective in creating value for the participants, business community, and society in general. In this chapter, let us briefly visit some of these networks through the centuries and see what we can learn from them. History is our best teacher. At this point it is appropriate to note that we will keep these discussions of historical business networks brief, neutral and non-controversial. The reason, besides efficiency, is that our objective is not a detailed study of characteristics, pros and cons, or even moral rectitude of the participants. Rather, it is more mundane exercise in finding parallels with the current business networks and their key characteristics.

The silk route – a vast ancient business network

Travels_of_Marco_Polo-300x153Without going too far back into the antiquity, let us start our journey at the silk route of the Middle Ages. At its peak, the silk route extended nearly 4000 miles from the coast of China through the territories of China, Central Asia, India, Persia and Assyria to the Mediterranean coast of Levant and onwards by sea to the fabled city of Venice and beyond. The term silk road creates an image of a road, perhaps even a boulevard traversed by a camel train laden with expensive cargoes and well protected by security.

The truth is, however, is far more complex. In reality it was a complex network of caravans, camel trains, serais, traders, money lenders and ships extended across the known world of the time to carry merchandise as diverse as silk, spices, wool, fabrics, tea, porcelain, carpets, ivory and other such items of high value. Each of the main cities in this network – Kashgar, Samarkand, Turfan, Baghdad, Tyre, Allepo or Alexandria – was a veritable hub of activities related to trade facilitation.

The participants in this network – whether a Sugd merchant, or a Chinese caravan owner, or a Florentine ship captain – were handsomely rewarded for their enterprise and ability to work their part in harnessing the power of the network. Marco_Polo_traveling-300x188Let us look at how the network was organised in practice. In the agrarian society of the Middle Ages, the most precious commodity traded by the business network was the spices.

Before the advent of refrigeration, spices were necessary to preserve food as well as mask the flavor of spoilt or rancid ingredient. Many spices such as pepper, cloves, mace and cumin, ginger, nutmeg, cinnamon and saffron traded for margins up to 3000 percent and some of these were regularly sold for prices more than their weight in gold. With such high margins, demand was never a constraint, the extent and security of the  supply route was. It was usual for the goods to change ownership more than 25 times between the producers in the east and the eventual consumer in the west.

Each middleman added his own margin as well as embellishment to the story. For example, Arab merchants told their European buyers that the cloves were netted out of river Nile and cinnamon came from the birds. Without any central command, the entire network was organized towards one end – production, collection and transportation of the spices and similar produce to the destinations in Europe.

Numerous middlemen – camel caravan owners, merchants, ship owners, and financiers participated in this chain – each within their own territory and with their own margin. It is estimated that the middlemen’s share of the profit in this enterprise was more than 90 percent.

Read more on The 5-Star Business Network

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  1. These ideas and concepts will be usually expressed by our thought leaders in multiple forums - conferences, speeches, books, reports, workshops, webinars, videos and training. You may have heard us say the same thing before.
  2. The date shown above the article refers to the day when this article was updated. This blog post or article may have been written anytime prior to that date. 
  3. All anecdotes are based on true stories to highlight the key points of the article - some details are changed to protect identification of the parties involved. 
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Vivek Sood

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  • People live in the present. They plan for and worry about the future. History, however, is the study of the past. Given all the demands that press in from living in the present and anticipating what is yet to come, why bother with what has been? Given all the desirable and available branches of knowledge, why insist—as most American educational programs do—on a good bit of history? And why urge many students to study even more history than they are required to?

    History Helps Us Understand People and Societies

    In the first place, history offers a storehouse of information about how people and societies behave. Understanding the operations of people and societies is difficult, though a number of disciplines make the attempt. An exclusive reliance on current data would needlessly handicap our efforts. How can we evaluate war if the nation is at peace—unless we use historical materials? How can we understand genius, the influence of technological innovation, or the role that beliefs play in shaping family life if we don’t use what we know about experiences in the past? Some social scientists attempt to formulate laws or theories about human behavior. But even these recourses depend on historical information, except for in limited, often artificial cases in which experiments can be devised to determine how people act. Major aspects of a society’s operation, like mass elections, missionary activities, or military alliances, cannot be set up as precise experiments. Consequently, history must serve, however imperfectly, as our laboratory, and data from the past must serve as our most vital evidence in the unavoidable quest to figure out why our complex species behaves as it does in societal settings. This, fundamentally, is why we cannot stay away from history: it offers the only extensive evidential base for the contemplation and analysis of how societies function, and people need to have some sense of how societies function simply to run their own lives. History Helps Us Understand Change and How the Society We Live in Came to Be The second reason history is inescapable as a subject of serious study follows closely on the first. The past causes the present, and so the future. Any time we try to know why something happened—whether a shift in political party dominance in the American Congress, a major change in the teenage suicide rate, or a war in the Balkans or the Middle East—we have to look for factors that took shape earlier. Sometimes fairly recent history will suffice to explain a major development, but often we need to look further back to identify the causes of change. Only through studying history can we grasp how things change; only through history can we begin to comprehend the factors that cause change; and only through history can we understand what elements of an institution or a society persist despite change…..(

  • When I enter the blog through its title, I had interest but can’t understand the terminology of old and modern business network above.

    • John, we often speak of a business network without consciously realizing that every organization is built and run on more than one type of network. The word ‘network’ is most commonly associated in business peoples’ minds with the infrastructure used to connect computing assets within and between organizations, so they may share data and information.

      I hope you understood or you got your answer on this?

  • Before societies organized on a scale larger than the tribe, living conditions and human mentality did not conceive of profits. There were plenty of activities that we now identify with business, such as manufacturing and trade, but like celebratory gift exchanges today, they was not conducted for profit as we conceive today. Contrary to the implicit dogmas of current free-market triumphalists, free markets and businesses have not been with us since the dawn of time.

  • This article reminds me of the history of Silk Road. The Silk Road was an ancient network of trade routes, formally established during the Han Dynasty of China, which linked the regions of the ancient world in commerce. The network was used regularly when the Han officially opened trade with the west. When the Ottoman Empire boycotted trade with the west and closed the routes. By this time, Europeans had become used to the goods from the east and, when the Silk Road closed, merchants needed to find new trade routes to meet the demand for these goods. The closure of the Silk Road initiated the Age of Discovery which would be defined by European explorers taking to the sea and charting new water routes to replace over-land trade.

  • Business first took modern form in ancient Greece, where money, markets, and entrepreneurial businesses began coming together in the early sixth century. Entrepreneurial businesses vied to sell their wares in public markets to the populace at large. Goods were allocated by purchase, rather than by status or political consideration. With Alexander the Great’s conquest of the Persian Empire, the civilized Western world experienced an unprecedented political, social, and economic revolution.

  • As manager of a small manufacturing and distribution company, I was stomping around my office late one night, frustrated with our antiquated business practices. I heard myself mutter, “This place is run like a Roman blacksmith shop!” and I stopped pacing. How did they run blacksmith shops in Rome, I wondered? Did they even have any? What were they like? In fact, how did business, to which billions of us now devote our working lives, even begin? What are the important differences between ancient businesses like Roman blacksmith shops and the computerized, outsourced, Internet-linked, machine-based businesses of today?

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